Mongabay-India 06. December 2019 13:27:24 IST
The Conference of Parties or CoP is the annual meeting of representatives of countries that are members of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), also known as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
In the CoPs, member states assess progress in implementing the Convention's objectives and plan the next steps to tackle climate change. The 201
UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement: What do they all mean?
In June 1992, the United Nations organized a major environmental summit – the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), in which more than 100 heads of state participated to find ways to prevent global environmental degradation. At UNCED, also known as the Earth Summit or Rio Summit since the Rio de Janeiro Conference (Brazil), the UNFCCC (Climate Change Convention) has been designed and agreed by the participating Member States.
The UNFCCC is a framework convention obliging Member States to adopt national guidelines and laws for their implementation. It has undergone a two-stage recognition process, with the State and Ministry of Environment of each country signing the Convention and later ratified by the national legislatures of each country. The UNFCCC is the basis for international cooperation to combat climate change by limiting the average global temperature rise.
The UNFCCC entered into force in 1994, when 197 parties agreed that greenhouse gas emissions are the main cause of climate change. Following this, the first UN Climate Change Conference of the UNFCCC Parties was held in Berlin in 1995.
At the third CoP 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, a subsidiary of an international convention on climate change was developed. This agreement, known as the Kyoto Protocol, legally binds industrialized countries to emission reduction targets. Developed countries agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 5.2 percent below 1990 levels by the first commitment period of the protocol, which began in 2008 and ended in 2012. The developing countries did not have emission reduction targets.
The Kyoto Protocol also provided three mechanisms to jointly achieve emission reduction targets. It was emissions trading between industrialized countries; joint implementation of the objective between the industrialized countries; and an environment-friendly development mechanism that would allow developed countries to receive carbon credits for their activities helping developing countries reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
The second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol started in 2013 and ends in 2020.
The Kyoto Protocol, which ends next year, the 2015 Paris Agreement, is the latest in global climate policy. In this context, the Heads of State and Government agreed to keep the global rise in temperature well below 2 degrees Celsius from the time fossil fuels are used, and to limit the temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
The Paris Agreement will enter into force in 2020 and replace the Kyoto Protocol.
What happens at the COP 25 in Madrid?
This year's COP in Madrid is a springboard for next year, when new climate protection commitments come into effect. CoP 2019 aims to increase ambitions, tackle climate change and complete processes related to the full operationalization of the Paris Climate Change Agreement before the Climate Summit 2020.
According to the UNFCCC, COP 25 will "carry out crucial climate change mitigation measures in areas such as finance, climate change transparency, forests and agriculture, technology, capacity building, loss and damage to indigenous peoples, cities, oceans and gender. "
One of his top priorities this year is the establishment of rules for the creation of carbon markets between nations, cities and businesses to stimulate emission reduction strategies.
Does a world warmed by 2 degrees really be that bad?
Longer heat waves, heavier rainfall, seas that eat into coastal cities, coral disappearance and crop production have negatively impacted food security – these are just a few of the effects when temperatures rise to 2 degrees Celsius. A rise in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius from 2 degrees Celsius can reduce the impact of climate change on society and natural biodiversity.
Given the current global temperature increase of 0.2 degrees Celsius (± 0.1 degrees Celsius) per decade, man-made warming by 2017 has already reached 1 degree Celsius above pre-industrial levels. If this warming continues, it will reach 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2040, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) finds.
The United Nations Secretary General, António Guterres, stressed in September of this year the urgency of action convened a climate summit, involving governments, private sector and civil society, to launch the multilateral process to accelerate climate change mitigation and ambition to support.
"We need more concrete plans, more ambitions from more countries and more companies. We need all public and private financial institutions to choose the green economy once and for all. "
At the summit India stated that it can only aspire to implement what it wants has already pledged.
What does India think about COP 25?
India's approach to COP 25 will be based primarily on the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibility and capacity (CBDR-RC), underlined in the UNFCCC and included in the Paris Convention. These principles recognize that while all countries should share responsibility for climate change, responsibility is not shared equally among all parties.
The UNFCCC notes that developed countries should take the lead in combating climate change and its adverse effects, as most of the historical and current global greenhouse gas emissions have come from industrialized countries. According to UNFCCC "per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low and the share of global emissions from developing countries will increase to meet their social and developmental needs."
In a statement, the Indian government emphasized that developed countries should meet their climate finance commitments and gradually and substantially increase their financial support. The statement also pointed out that India will emphasize at COP 25 that developed countries should meet their climate change commitments before 2020 and that any transposition gaps should not weigh on developing countries if climate change postpones post-2020 measures.
The Indian delegation Prakash Javadekar, Minister for the Environment, Forests and Climate Change, will be leading the COP 25 in Madrid. The India booth at COP 25 shows Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel, Charkha as a message for sustainable living in India and the world.
This story was made with minor style changes by [19459003neuveröffentlicht] Mongabay-India . To read the original, click here .
Latest and upcoming technical devices can be found online at Tech2 Devices. Get technology news, gadgets reviews and ratings. Popular gadgets, including specifications, features, pricing, comparison of laptops, tablets, and mobile devices.