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Home / NewTech / Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter captures solar flares in the act and prepares to observe the lunar surface response – Technology News, Firstpost

Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter captures solar flares in the act and prepares to observe the lunar surface response – Technology News, Firstpost



The Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) got its first impression of a solar flare – an important prerequisite for the spaceship study, which makes up the lunar surface. In essence, high-energy solar radiation helps "illuminate" the lunar surface so that the orbiter's instruments can capture additional data on the composition of the surface elements of the moon. ISRO has exchanged data collected by the orbital solar X-ray monitor on the torch.

The sun's surface and its atmosphere are violent places. It's not just the heat and pressure that will bring you to it ̵

1; these places also trigger periodic, powerful explosions that are expelled from the sun's surface. Each of these explosions is also timed with an increase in harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation and X-radiation. As with a clockwork, these strong fluctuations vary over a cycle of eleven years – they oscillate between a very obvious solar "maxima" and a "minima" during that time.

The volume of X-ray emissions varies each year depending on the stage of the solar cycle. Obviously, there are also episodes in which solar x-rays show large fluctuations over a much shorter period – minutes or hours. These are so-called "solar flares".

  Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter catches solar flares in the act and prepares to observe the lunar surface's response.

The Solar Dynamics Observatory, a NASA organization, observed a mid-sized eruption that lasted almost 2 hours and an eruption of coronal mass from the same major active region on July 14, 2017. Image: NASA

Orbiter's instruments sensitive to the diversity of elements in the lunar soil. ISRO made it clear that one of the orbiter's key objectives – mapping the elements and minerals that cover the lunar soil – was best achieved during a solar flare. For Chandrayaan 2, there are two instruments that are critical to this study: the large area soft X-ray spectrometer (CLASS) and the solar X-ray monitor (XSM).

Lightning photography for illuminating elements

The CLASS instrument on Chandrayaan 2 was developed to record signatures of elements in the lunar soil. These signatures are very visible when sun eruptions on the Sun send x-rays through the solar system. Solar flares are a rich source of X-rays and illuminate the lunar surface as they strike. This causes the elements to absorb these x-rays and to emit a unique spectrum of light based on which element is involved. These "secondary X-ray emissions" can be read off the CLASS instrument of Chandrayaan 2 to create a graph that looks something like this:

  Data from the CLASS instrument for Chandrayaan 2 show the intensity of the particles in the Earth's geotail September 2019. ISRO

Data from the CLASS instrument for Chandrayaan 2 show the intensity of the particles in the Earth's geotail, September 2019. Image: ISRO

This "flash photography technique" used by the orbiter must be planned in advance for them agrees with those of certain events The sun. According to ISRO, further observations in the future of Chandrayaan 2 and other space missions may help to unravel the "dance of electrons to the music of the magnetic fields" around the moon.

Solar Wind and Geotail of the Earth

For ISRO: Solar Wind episodes also offer a chance. The sun's plasma, which consists of charged particles embedded in the far-reaching magnetic field of the Sun, moves at rapid speeds of several hundred kilometers per second. On the way, this plasma interacts with planets and space rocks – including Earth and Moon. Fortunately, we are spared earthlings from the solar wind's wrath by the terrestrial, fairly strong magnetic field that effortlessly distracts charged particles. This interaction creates a magnetic shell around the Earth, similar to a shield, the magnetosphere.

 An example of how the magentosphere, the solar wind, and the geotail interact with each other.

The Earth's magnetosphere is not a plane layer that envelops the planet and the atmosphere – it is three to four times the Earth's radius (about 22,000 km from the surface) on the side of the planet facing the Sun. This also creates a long tail (similar to the tail of a comet) on the opposite side long enough to go beyond the moon's orbit.

Every 29 days, the moon experiences six days (often accompanied by a full moon) under the influence of the geotail. ISRO has also timed the orbits of the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter so that it can traverse this geotail and investigate how it behaves hundreds of thousands of miles from Earth. These are the first scientific data collected from the Chandrayaan 2 mission. Earlier this week, ISRO published the first high-resolution images of the surface features of the Moon and the first scientific data from the Chandrayaan 2 mission.

Captured by the high-resolution orbiter camera (OHRC) from a height of ~ 100 kilometers. ISRO said that the images are the highest resolution images ever captured by the Moon.

<img class = "size-full wp-image-7470641" src = "https://images.firstpost.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Chandrayaan-2-OHRC-closeup-images- of-the-moons-surface_ISRO.jpg "alt =" Close-up of the lunar surface, taken by the high-resolution camera (OHRC) of the Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter, the high-resolution camera (OHRC) of the Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter Image: ISRO

  Close-up of boulders the surface of the moon taken by the high-resolution camera (OHRC) of the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter Image: ISRO

Close-up of rocks on the lunar surface taken by the high-resolution camera (OHRC) of the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter Image: ISRO

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